• ENNY מתחילה לחפש גז מתחת לתגלית הגז הענקית זוהר במצריים.יצוא גז לאירופה ב-2017
  • Columbia Scientists Unlock Big Perovskite Solar Cell Mystery
    Columbia Scientists Unlock Big Perovskite Solar Cell Mystery Image: Perovskite solar cell material by Nicoletta Barolini via Columbia University. September 22nd, 2016 by Tina Casey  Perovskites have been tapped as the new “superstar” material in the race for more efficient, less expensive solar cells, and a team of researchers at Columbia University has just figured out why they perform so well. The discovery could also help overcome a major hurdle between perovskite solar cells and the mass market. perovskite-solar-cell efficiency What’s So Great About Perovskite Solar Cells? The new Columbia study has to do with a class of solar cell materials called hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOIPs). The research team calls attention to something that caught the CleanTechnica eye a couple of years ago (and our sister site PlanetSave, which is the astonishing pace of improvement in perovskite solar cell technology within just the past few years (perovskites are a class of synthetic materials based on the structure of naturally occurring mineral perovskite). The perovskite track record is particularly impressive when compared to the rate of improvement for silicon, which is the current gold standard for solar cell technology. This is how the Columbia researchers describe it: Over the last seven years, scientists have managed to increase the efficiency with which HOIPs can convert solar energy into electricity, to 22 percent from 4 percent. By contrast, it took researchers more than six decades to create silicon cells and bring them to their current level, and even now silicon cells can convert no more than about 25 percent of the sun’s energy into electrical current. Don’t just take their word for it. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is also impressed with the pace of perovskite solar cell research. The lab had this to say back in 2014: A new solar material that has the same crystal structure as a mineral first found in the Ural Mountains in 1839 is shooting up the efficiency charts faster than almost anything researchers have seen before—and it is generating optimism that a less expensive way of using sunlight to generate electricity may be in our planet’s future. The Perovskite Solar Cell Mystery One key obstacle to low-cost silicon solar cells is the fact that silicon needs to be practically flawless in order to function efficiently. Nanoscale defects at the ion level can make sunlight dissipate before it is transformed into a current. In contrast, perovskites can operate at a high level of efficiency even with numerous defects. That’s a good thing to have when you’re gunning for a high throughput, low cost manufacturing process. So, for example, you could potentially come up with a reasonably efficient perovskite solar cell by using established, room temperature solution-based processes. The question, until now, is why can perovskite crystals still perform well, even when loaded with defects. The answer, according to the Columbia research team, is that the rate of energy loss is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude in HOIPs. In effect, electrons “avoid bumping into” the numerous defects that occur in perovskite solar cells that are made using relatively The Columbia study could also help to chart a path toward overcoming one very concerning characteristic of perovskite solar cells, namely, their reliance on lead. Now that the mechanism behind the high efficiency/low cost equation has been explained, it is possible to mimic those characteristics using non-toxic materials. Columbia professor Xiaoyang Zhu, who leads the research team, foresees a collaboration with his colleagues on designing and fabricating just such materials, so stay tuned for that. Meanwhile, you can get more details on the study from Zhu’s chemistry lab at Columbia or look for the study in the journal Science. Image: Perovskite solar cell material by Nicoletta Barolini via Columbia University. link
  • Egypt LNG Industry Forecasts to 2022
    Egypt LNG Industry Forecasts to 2022 - Outlook of Liquefaction/Regasification Terminals, Companies, Supply-Demand, Investments and Planned Projects Egypt LNG capacity is expected to remain at 12.7 mtpa in 2020. On the other hand, Egypt LNG regasification capacity is expected to increase from 7.5 mtpa in 2015 to 7.5 mtpa in 2020. Currently, companies in the industry continue to face tough challenges of shaping their strategies to rapidly changing global dynamics Egypt LNG Industry report provides key trends, strategies and project updates on the entire Egypt LNG value chain. The comprehensive research provides details of Egypt LNG trading patterns, key suppliers and buyers, volumes, industry revenues/expenditures, infrastructure details and competitive scenario. The global LNG industry is undergoing rapid changes driven by low oil prices and shifts in strategies of governments across the world. Both terminal operators and investors continue to face ambiguity on planned projects. The report assists LNG companies and equipment, services providers in Egypt by providing updates on industry trends, global perspectives on current issues and detailed analysis of planned projects. Key prospects of investment coupled with economic and business focus of Egypt LNG market is provided. For the first time, you will find the long term sale- purchase contracts (MSPAs), trade movements, prices along with an illustrative map in one single report. In addition, the report provides the construction details, capital investments and feasibility of planned projects. Natural gas reserves and production-consumption patterns are analyzed in detail through annual forecasts. Information on all active and planned Sale- Purchase Agreements signed by companies along with forecasts of contracted and spare capacities to 2020 are detailed. Egypt LNG Market is compared to its peer markets to evaluate the investment potential of the country. Further, growth of LNG market in the country is benchmarked with other markets in the region. Detailed analysis of companies, their strategies, capacities, new projects and market shares are provided for each of the LNG companies in Egypt LNG industry. Further, all recent news and latest developments are analyzed along with their possible impact on the future of Egypt LNG markets. Scope - Top five Trends in LNG markets - Forecasts of Supply/demand, LNG capacity, trains/vaporizers, storage capacity, storage tanks, contracted vs available capacity, from 2005 to 2022 - LNG investment market analysis and business focus - Details of new opportunities, trade volumes, shipping distances, market concentration and new entrants scope - LNG SWOT Analysis and Benchmarking with other Regional LNG markets - Planned greenfield LNG Terminals and expansion projects with details of current status, expected start up, capital investment, construction companies and capacities - Long and Medium Term LNG contracts signed by LNG companies - Operational and planned Terminal details- basic (start up, location, type), capacity (liquefaction/Regasification, contracted, storage), Company (operator, owners), Construction (technology, constructor, capex) - Company wise liquefaction/Regasification capacity outlook- 2005 to 2022 - Profiles of three leading LNG companies with analysis of LNG, oil and gas, financials, SWOT and contacts - Recent News, Events and market Developments Landscape For more information please click on: http://www.researchandmarkets.com/publication/m48j8t2/3676682 Title Index: 1. Table of Contents 2. Executive Summary 3. Forecasts of Egypt LNG Industry to 2022 4. Egypt LNG Market Analysis 5. Egypt Planned LNG Projects 6. Egypt LNG Industry Competitive Structure 7. Egypt LNG Infrastructure Details- Location, Start Up, Capacity, Companies, Trains, Tanks and Capex 8. Business Profiles of Three Leading Egypt LNG Companies 9. Egypt LNG Market Monitor 10. Appendix Pricing: From USD 1200 Ordering - Three easy ways to place your order: 1] Order online at click here 2] Order by fax: Print an Order form from click here and Fax to +353 1 481 1716 3] Order by mail: Print an Order form from click here and post to Research and Markets, Guinness Center, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8. Ireland. Thank you for your consideration Best Regards, Amy Cole Senior Manager Research and Markets, Guinness Centre, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland. amy.cole@researchandmarkets-updates.com
  • יצוא הגז הנוזלי האמריקאי יהיה משנה-משחק
    US LNG Exports will be Game-Changer: Ifri Report “US LNG exports will revolutionise international trade in LNG” according to a recently published report from French think-tank, Institut Francais des Relations Internationales (Ifri). Thanks to their price indexation to the US Henry Hub price, absence of destination clauses, and the projected volumes that will become available, US LNG exports will facilitate greater flexibility on world markets and more price convergence, the report says. US LNG will be exported to the most profitable markets. However, author Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe argues that US exports nonetheless represent a game-changer for the European market too, even if it’s difficult to forecast how much will be exported there. She believes that Europe should enhance the potential security this new supply provides, by filling gaps in its infrastructure system. paper can be downloaded at www.ifri.org or here. link
  • פרסום מכרז נוסף להקמת תחנות כוח סולאריות בסמוך לעיר דימונה:
    משרד האוצר מקדם הקמת תחנות כוח סולאריות חדשות 19/09/2016 החשבת הכללית במשרד האוצר, מיכל עבאדי-בויאנג'ו, מינתה ועדת מכרזים בין משרדית המשותפת למשרדי האוצר, האנרגיה ורשות החשמל לפרסום מכרז נוסף להקמת תחנות כוח סולאריות בסמוך לעיר דימונה. בחודשים הקרובים תפרסם הועדה מיון מוקדם לפרויקט. אתר דימונה דרום ממוקם דרומית לאזור התעשייה בדימונה. האתר שצפוי לספק עד 500 מגה-וואט, מתפרס על כ- 6000 דונם ומיועד להקמת תחנות כוח סולאריות בטכנולוגיה פוטו-וולטאית. הפרויקט יבוצע בשיטת ה- PPP ( ,(Public Private Partnership במסגרתו הזכיין יתכנן, יממן, יקים, יתפעל ויתחזק את התחנה למשך תקופת הזיכיון. בתום תקופת הפרויקט יועבר המיזם למדינה ללא עלות. 10 קבוצות אושרו במסגרת הליך מיון להקמת מתקן לייצור חשמל סולארי בטכנולוגיה פוטו-וולטאית באשלים: ועדת המכרזים הבין משרדית לתחנות כוח סולאריות באשלים המשותפת למשרדי האוצר, האנרגיה ורשות החשמל אשר הוקמה על ידי החשבת הכללית במשרד האוצר אישרה ל- 10 קבוצות להתמודד במסגרת הליך מיון מוקדם במכרז למימון, תכנון, הקמה ותפעול של מתקן לייצור חשמל סולארי בטכנולוגיה פוטו-וולטאית. הליך המיון פורסם בחודש מרץ האחרון, כאשר המכרז העיקרי צפוי להתפרסם ברבעון הרביעי של שנת 2016. הקמת התחנה צפויה להתחיל ברבעון הראשון של שנת 2018. הצפי לתחילת הפעלת התחנה הוא ברבעון האחרון לשנת 2018. לשלב המיון המוקדם ניגשו 12 קבוצות, כאשר 10 הקבוצות שעברו את שלב המיון המוקדם הן: שיכון ובינוי, אי.די.אף אנרג'י נובל ישראל בע"מ, אנלייט אשלים סולארי, בילקטריק אשלים, אנרג'יקס אנרגיות מתחדשות בע"מ, אשלים פאוור (ערבה אנרגיה ואלקטרה פאוור), אפקון אשלים ב' חווה סולארית, סולארית דוראל בע"מ ואמפא בע"מ, אם + דבליו גרופ (ישראל) בע"מ וכלל סאן. התחנה החדשה היא תחנת כוח סולארית פוטו-וולטאית בהספק של עד 40 מגה-וואט אשר תוקם בצמוד לתחנת כוח סולארית פוטו-וולטאית ובסמוך לשתי תחנות כוח תרמו-סולאריות נוספות, הנמצאות כיום בשלבי הקמה. התחנה תבוצע בשיטת PPP - Public Private Partnership (בדומה לשתי התחנות הנוספות), במסגרתה הזכיין יתכנן, יממן, יקים, יתפעל ויתחזק את התחנה למשך תקופת הזיכיון, שאורכה יהיה כ- 25 שנה. בתום התקופה, הפרויקט יועבר למדינה ללא עלות. התחנות יספקו כ- 1.5% מסך ייצור החשמל במשק, ויהוו אבן דרך משמעותית לקראת עמידה ביעד הממשלה לפיו עד לשנת 2020 ייוצר 10% מהחשמל במשק הישראלי ממקורות אנרגיה מתחדשים. סגן בכיר לחשבת הכללית, יריב נחמה: "תחנת הכוח המתוכננת בדימונה דרום היא פרויקט בסדר גודל חסר תקדים בתחום האנרגיות המתחדשות. הפרויקט בדימונה דרום יחד עם התחנה באשלים צפויים להוות אבן דרך משמעותית בעמידה ביעד הממשלה לפיו עד שנת 2020 ייוצר 10% מהחשמל במשק הישראלי ממקורות אנרגיה מתחדשים".
  • הגז הישראלי במרכז התיכנון האירופאי ליבוא גז
    ANALYSIS: European Gas, from One Sea to Another… Raffaele Perfetto- The decline in production in the North Sea finds an offset in the rising production potential from the eastern Mediterranean. In a previous piece[1] published on this site in June, the author Raffaele Perfetto discussed potential drivers shaping the European gas scenario in the near future and here he focuses on one in particular: the Mediterranean Gas Hub (MGH) and how it can fit with European energy needs. The last energy scenario[2] presented by the European Commission contained interesting points worthy of further examination. The scenario is based on assumptions about: population growth, technology breakthroughs, oil prices, and macroeconomic developments. As with all forecasts, outcomes must be reviewed with criticism. The energy mix from 2015-2050 foresees solid fuels decline by 11%, oil by 4%, nuclear by 3% but renewables to grow by 18%. Gas is practically steady, accounting for a quarter, for the next 35 years. Turning our attention now to how much gas the EU produces and consumes and finally the net imports, according to forecasts demand should stabilise around 420bn m³/year by 2015. Domestic production will decrease steadily, tumbling from around 130bn m³/yr to 60bn m³/yr. The decrease in production is ongoing: another interesting report, the quarterly update on the gas market3”that was released by the EU Market Observatory for Energy, shows a fair drop in gas production over the last two years. The EU gas production is expected to be halved in 35 years. How will the EU fill this gap? The abovementioned quarterly report[3], shares also the data about last year gas supplies: Russia with 40%, Norway 37%, Algeria 7%, Libya 2% and LNG with13% (5 points up from 2015). Will the same quotas remain in future? The Financial Times’ energy editor Andrew Ward in a piece[4] last September quoted the Israeli energy minister introducing the idea that the MGH could support the replacement of declining North Sea production. For the EU, the development of the Med Energy Hub (not only gas) seems to be important. Indeed in the Ten Year Network Development Plan[5] point number 8 contemplates the usefulness of a further linking of the energy network between Italy and north Africa. Regarding the MGH a lot of discussion is revolving around this topic. A recent analysis published by Atlantic Council[6] (AC) clearly presented all the main stakeholders and challenges in their path. The resource base is big; but further explorations could bring more. Assuming a 70% recovery factor for the reserves and a life of 30 years, we could get a gas production of around 25bn m³/year (from Israel & Cyprus) and 20bn m³/year from Egypt. We need to ask now how much of this gas could be available for exports, in other words what is left after subtracting the domestic demand. Data from BP shows clear trends. Growing population is a major factor: Turkey and Algeria have the steepest trends. Algeria could easily stop exporting in the next 12 years, if there are no changes. The short-fall between gas supply and demand in the area ranges from between 10bn m³/yr and 20bn m³/year. The upper end of the range assumes nothing from Libya. Indeed the country is not connected to the eastern Med (no pipes, no LNG) and struggling with political turmoil. But the new discoveries can rebalance the area and even more, generate a surplus. Egypt could export the gas but like the others, has to deal with its growing internal demand. Before 2011 demand rose about 10bn m³/year in 3 years. Recently, Saleh Heba, correspondent at Financial Times in Cairo, mentioned[7] the increased need for investing in desalination processes to preserve the per capita fresh water parameter. This parameter indeed, is threatened by urbanization plans, which aim to reclaim acreage from desert. Israel thanks to the new discoveries, is already in the position to export but unclear is the way the Israeli (plus Cypriot) gas will take to reach the EU: Turkey or Egypt? Israel is already connected to Egypt through the Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP), used before to get gas from Cairo but now, as reported last July by a local newspaper the Daily News Egypt[8], the arbitration between East Mediterranean Gas Company (owner of the pipe), and the Egyptian and Israeli authorities, could put an end to the AGP solution. Going back at how to get connected with EU, the same paper above8 mentions that during a press conference in June, the Israeli prime minister said his country, could supply both Turkey and Egypt. The three big discoveries in Egypt, Cyprus and Israel are within a 100-km radius. Then you have to add the 150-km pipe to get onshore. Cyprus and Israel could therefore have access to another alternative to Europe. The Egyptian LNG facilities (Damietta and Idku) are a valid way to Europe. This last hypothesis is getting some traction. In August, Yaacov Benmeleh, reporting for Bloomberg, wrote[9] about advanced talks regarding “a non-binding agreement” among the operating companies of Tamar field (Noble and Delek) and Union Fenosa Gas (UFG), that owns 80% of LNG Damietta’s facilities. The agreement would cover gas deliveries from Tamar field to Damietta’s LNG facilities. What goes up must come down… and vice versa. In the last three years the European market has not been so attractive. Quarterly data3 released by EC show for the wholesalegas price at around $5/mn Btu. High stocks, low demand, energy efficiency and oil-indexed contracts are reported as main causes of what has been the lowest price since 2009. However, Israeli gas could allow Egypt to boost its exports, diverting to EU the Israeli gas, and using its own to cope with internal consumption (or vice versa). So, the Egyptian LNG facilities, with a capacity of around 17bn m³/yr, could be revived. If the LNG capacity is fully used, every $/mn Btu of price movement results in a gain or loss of about $600mn. As we argued at the beginning of this paper, the EU can easily absorb the gas surplus and even more in the next years. The gas is available and to conclude, as a proverb says, it takes two for tango: we need gas but, we need price as well. For instance Cedigaz, the international gas research organisation, foresees a price of $7/mn Btu in 2020[10]. link Raffaele Perfetto has been working for nine years in the upstream department of an international oil company in Italy and abroad. The views expressed in the paper are his own. [1]Europe and its options. R. Perfetto – Natural Gas World. Available from: http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/europe-and-its-options-30215 [2]EU Reference Scenario 2016. Energy, transport and GHG emissions - Trends to 2050. Available on https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/20160712_Summary_Ref_scenario_MAIN_RESULTS%20(2)-web.pdf [3]Quarterly Report Energy on European Gas Markets - Market Observatory for Energy DG Energy, Volume 9 (issue 1; fourth quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016) [4]Wards A- FT. Israel seeks to lure big oil and gas groups for rights auction. Available from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3556ffda-712c-11e6-a0c9-1365ce54b926.html?ftcamp=engage/#axzz4JvBhBGtF [5]Entose (2016): Ten Years Network Development Plan, available from http://tyndp.entsoe.eu/exec-report/ [6]Ellinas C., J. Roberts, H. Tzimitras (2016). Atlantic Council - Hydrocarbon Developments in the Eastern Mediterranean The Case for Pragmatism. Available from: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/reports/hydrocarbon-developments-in-the-eastern-mediterranean [7]Saleh Heba. FT. Egypt puts hopes in ‘supergiant’ gasfield. Available from: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6345b71a-e54f-11e5-a09b-1f8b0d268c39.html?siteedition=intl#axzz4JvBhBGtF [8]Mohamed Samir. Daily News Egypt.Will Israeli natural gas flow in Egypt’s pipelines? 14-July-2016. http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2016/07/14/will-israeli-natural-gas-flow-in-egypts-pipelines/ [9]Benmeleh Yaacov. – Bloomberg. Spain’s Union Fenosa Said Mulling Higher Israel Gas Imports. Available on http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-08-29/spain-s-union-fenosa-said-in-talk... [10]Cedigaz. Medium and Long Term Natural Gas Outlook 2016, available on http://www.cedigaz.org/documents/2016/SummaryMLTOutlook.pdf
  • Moniz: There are competing pipeline and LNG system proposals in the Eastern Mediterranean
    US Energy Sec. Ernest G. Moniz WASHINGTON, DC, Sept. 15 09/15/2016 By Nick Snow OGJ Washington Editor It is time for the US to take a fresh, comprehensive look at its energy security policies so they reflect 21st century energy market changes, challenges, and needs, US Energy Sec. Ernest G. Moniz told a US House Energy and Commerce subcommittee. “Our energy security investments and policies should be viewed in a broad sense to value and include the resiliency, reliability, and modernization of key energy infrastructures, energy efficiency, responses to climate change, and the collective needs of our allies and partners,” Moniz said during a Sept. 15 Energy and Power Subcommittee hearing. Such an energy security view should not discount oil, Moniz said. “Indeed, the [US Strategic Petroleum Reserve] remains a highly valuable tool for meeting US energy security needs in 21st century global markets,” he said. Despite changes in the US oil production profile, the economy will remain vulnerable to significant international supply disruptions in the future, and the SPR will remain an important aspect of the national energy security strategy, Moniz said. Those production profile changes, particularly in their effects on the pipeline system, have reduced the SPR’s ability to respond to a future disruption, he added. “There are vulnerabilities not only in wires and pipes, but also in inland waterways and other key parts of our national energy transportation system,” Moniz said. His testimony came a week after DOE released a congressionally-mandated long-term strategic review of the SPR that examined its surface and subsurface infrastructure, bottlenecks that could restrict distribution, costs and benefits of options, modernization requirements, and issues with the SPR’s authorization under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. “The whole point of modernizing the SPR has been to improve the distribution of crude oil which has been compromised by our increased production,” Moniz said. “We have submitted our request for the modernization’s first tranche to build new marine distribution infrastructure in the Gulf region. We seek $800 million to modernize distribution equipment and another $1 billion to improve marine capabilities. We should complete work on this in about 3 years.” LNG concerns Abundant natural gas resources and large production increases have created global, regional, and domestic market opportunities for US producers, Moniz said. “Indeed, US exports of LNG can make a major contribution to the evolution of world gas markets,” he said. Europe’s more-flexible gas systems and well-developed markets make it an attractive US LNG export destination, although flat-to-soft demand there suggest intense competition for customers will develop, Moniz said. There are competing pipeline and LNG system proposals in the Eastern Mediterranean to support regional demand, with the present focus on developing regional gas pipelines, he said. “Finally, it should be noted that the widening of the Panama Canal is taking place coincident to the growth of LNG exports from the US,” Moniz said. “This multibillion dollar infrastructure improvement could help facilitate and lower transportation costs for the US LNG trade with Asia and possibly to destinations on the west coast of South America.” Asked about a provision that would require DOE to decide within 30 days whether an LNG export proposals is in the national interest as part of broader energy policy reforms before a Senate-House conference, Moniz said he does not believe it is needed. “Since we changed our process in 2014, we have approved—quite speedily—all the export applications, sometimes as short as one day after [the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission] approved its permits to a few weeks. We have been committed to address these applications expeditiously,” he told the subcommittee. Addressing climate change also will be a crucial component in developing modern, effective energy security policies, Moniz said. “Just this week, a number of military leaders pointed out that climate change can have an impact on our national security, including energy,” he said. “As we go into a low-carbon transition, we’re addressing this, but we also need to address threats to our energy infrastructure and response to interruptions. We need to think about addressing our security and climate issues in an integrated way.” link
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